Technische wetenschappen

 
Image Archive Architectural Interventions IAAI(registration)

Request for subsidy N.W.O./S.T.W middle-large investment

2002-10-10

Submitted by Prof.dr.ir. T.M. de Jong, professor Town and region designing, environmental planning and ecology, Faculty of Architecture DUT, Berlageweg 1, 2628 CR Delft, or postbus 5043,  2600 GA Delft. Tel. 0152785965 or 0793516599. Fax 0152783694. Email T.M.deJong@bk.tudelft.nl. Internet http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/urbanism/TEAM. Project leader Prof.dr.ir. I.S. Sariyildiz.

Related additional requests allocated by Habiforum by Frieling, new request for utilization to ICES by Rots. Keywords: image database, design study, study by design, DSSystems, decision making.

 

CONTENTS

1    Introduction.. 2

1.1  Summary  2

1.2  Summary in Dutch  3

1.3  Formulation of the problem    4

1.4  Utilization  5

1.5  Aims  6

1.6  Research group  7

2    Plan of work and utilization.. 8

2.1  Input differentiation  9

2.2  Database functionality  9

2.3  ‘Linguistic’ database  9

2.4  Output by Geographic Information Systems including Design (GIS-D) 10

2.5  Writing 'help' files  10

2.6  Facilitating maintenance  10

2.7  External users  10

2.8  Developing DSSystems  10

2.9  Hardware  10

3    Costs and coverage.. 11

Enclosure Starting points.. 12

Previous history  12

Input 12

Final image of IAAI(registration) 13

Contacts for further development 13

Enclosure current programme of demands.. 15

Implementation input 15

Retrievability of context and perspective  16

Commonness list 17

Association lists  17

Automatic translation of keywords  17

Feed back to the supplier  17

Deleting unsuccessful  keywords  17

Database functionality  17

Output 18

Help files  18

Maintenance and organization  18

External users  18

Enclosure largely realized programme (in Dutch iba 1999) 19

References.. 23

Keywords.. 26

 

1         Introduction

1.1      Summary

The Image Archive of Architectural Interventions IAAI(registration)[a] now contains approximately 1500 images from approximately 500 recent graduate projects from the Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology (DUT). The Faculty strives to document all graduation projects from now on this way. The archive is accessible via the internet[b]. The images are documented per image in such a way that researchers, teachers, students and DSSystems outside the Faculty can select and download series of images relevant to a specified research or design theme and to urban decision making. Urban and architectural designs are pre-eminently context sensitive. The input programme asks for selection criteria concerning context characteristics per level of scale. Each image is supposed to be made with an implicit view on the administrative, cultural, economical, technical, ecological and/or mass-space-time circumstances the design will function in. The input programme asks to make this perspective explicit. It asks which kinds of impacts within that perspecive are readable from the image. So images can be found again by such context criteria.

 

A final image of the IAAI is a 3D map of the Netherlands per perspective, designed by the designers who will shape the Netherlands. You can fly through each scenario virtually (‘flight simulator') and examine each design at first glance in its mass-space-time context. This is important to find examples comparable by context. To this purpose the Meetkundige Dienst RWS (Feinaud) would like to put an adapted version of the 3D Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (AHN) to our disposal. Geodan (Scholten, VU) already gave a 2D inzoomable map to find the images by location. Two other faculties of DUT made progress in this field by situating works of Vermeer in their 3D historical context of Delft[c].

 

Design research, and study by design, need a critical mass of images to find some of them, professionally comparable by context, perspective, impact and other characteristics more difficult to name[d]. The system will probably function for this purpose when a critical mass of 100 000 well documented images is reached. To reach this critical mass, the programme for input is made as user friendly as possible for the approximately 3000 students, teachers and researchers of the faculty. They have a personal interest in a worldwide accessible portfolio of their own work. They constitute a motivated and educated capacity for the labour-intensive input. The developed input programme is however too extended for many projects with their own standard input. A more tapered input for each project, in the future to be adapted by the suppliers themselves, has to be developed to stimulate decentralized input.

The system is shaped in such a way, that after reaching a critical mass for research, different external Decision (or Design) Support Systems (DSS) could make use of the registration. A prototype of such a DSS is made by Frieling IAAI(E.M.R.) (Frieling, Gordijn et al. 2001) by order of Habiforum, presupposing an IAAI(registration) as proposed here.

 

This request N.W.O./S.T.W. to subsidize the registration project asks for a contribution of  € 640 000 to

 

·         differentiate the input per research project;

·         elaborate a more linguistic storage and semantic retrievability solving design profession specific naming problems;

·         develop a 3D landscape of design contexts.

 

The request is submitted by Prof.dr.ir. T.M. de Jong, professor Environmental Planning and Ecology, Faculty of Architecture DUT, Berlageweg 1, 2628 CR Delft, or postbus 5043,  2600 GA Delft. Tel. 0152785965 or 0793516599. Fax 0152783694. Email T.M.deJong@bk.tudelft.nl. Internet www.bk.tudelft.nl/urbanism/TEAM.

1.2      Summary in Dutch

Het Image Archive of Architectural Interventions IAAI(registration)[e] bevat nu ongeveer 1500 beelden van ongeveer 500 recente afstudeerprojecten van de Faculteit Bouwkunde TUDelft. De Facuteit streeft naar documentatie op deze manier van alle afstudeerprojecten vanaf nu. Het archief is toegankelijk via het internet[f]. De beelden zijn zodanig per beeld gedocumenteerd dat onderzoekers, docenten, studenten en DSSystemen buiten de Faculteit series beelden kunnen kiezen en downloaden, relevant voor specifieke thema’s van onderzoek, ontwerp en publieke besluitvorming betreffende het bouwen. Stedebouwkundige en architectonische ontwerpen zijn bij uitstek contextgevoelig. Het invoerprogramma vraagt om context-kenmerken per schaalniveau die als selectiecriterium bij het zoeken gebruikt kunnen worden. Er wordt van uitgegaan dat elk beeld wordt gemaakt met een onuitgesproken visie op de bestuurlijke, culturele, economische, technische, ecologische en/of massa-ruimte-tijd omstandigheden waarin het ontwerp zal functioneren. Het invoerprogramma vraagt dit perspectief expliciet te maken. Het vraagt ook welke soorten consequenties binnen dat perspectief afleesbaar zijn van de tekening. Daardoor kunnen beelden worden teruggevonden volgens zulke context-criteria.

 

Een eindbeeld van het IAAI is een 3D-kaart van Nederland per perspectief of scenario, ontworpen door de ontwerpers die Nederland in de toekomst grotendeels ook werkelijk zullen vormgeven. Daarmee kan men door elk scenario virtueel heen vliegen ('flight simulator'), zodat elk ontwerp in één oogopslag kan worden bestudeerd in zijn context van massa, ruimte en tijd. Dit is van belang om voorbeelden te vinden die ook qua context vergelijkbaar zijn. Tot dit doel is ook de Meetkundige Dienst RWS (Feinaud) bereid een aangepaste versie van het 3D Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (AHN) ter beschikking te stellen. Geodan (Scholten, VU) heeft een 2D inzoombare kaart ter beschikking gesteld om de beelden naar locatie te kunnen terugzoeken. Twee andere faculteiten van de TUDelft hebben al vooruitgang geboekt door werken van Vermeer in hun historische 3D context van Delft te plaatsen[g].

 

Ontwerponderzoek en onderzoek door ontwerp vergen een kritische massa beelden om enkele beelden te kunnen vinden die ook vergelijkbaar zijn wat betreft context, perspectief, afleesbare consequenties en andere kenmerken die moeilijk te benoemen zijn[h]. Het systeem kan tot dit doel waarschijnlijk pas functioneren wanneer een kritische massa van 100 000 goed gedocumenteerde beelden wordt bereikt. Om deze kritische massa te bereiken is een invoerprogramma gemaakt dat zo gebruikersvriendelijk mogelijk kan worden gebruikt door de ongeveer 3000 studenten, docenten en onderzoekers van de faculteit. Zij hebben persoonlijk belang bij een portfolio van hun eigen werk dat wereldwijd toegankelijk is. Zij vormen daardoor een gemotiveerd en professioneel potentieel voor de arbeidsintensieve invoer. Het ontwikkelde invoerprogramma is echter te uitgebreid voor veel ontwerpprojecten die een eigen, gestandaardiseerde invoer hebben. Een meer toegespitste invoer voor elk project, in de toekomst aanpasbaar door de leveranciers van beelden zelf, moet ontwikkeld worden om een gedecentraliseerde invoer te stimuleren.

Het systeem is zo opgezet, dat nadat een kritieke massa voor onderzoek is bereikt, verscheidene externe Decision (of Design) Support Systemen (DSS) van deze registratie gebruik kunnen maken.

Een prototype van zo’n DSS, het 'IAAI(E.M.R.)’ is gemaakt door Frieling (Frieling, Gordijn et al. 2001) in opdracht van Habiforum. Het vooronderstelt een IAAI(registration) zoals hier wordt voorgesteld.

 

Dit verzoek aan N.W.O./S.T.W. om het IAAI-registratieproject te subsidiëren, omvat een bijdrage van € 640 000 voor:

 

·         invoerdifferentiatie per onderzoeksproject;

·         het uitwerken van een meer linguistische opslag en een semantische terugzoekbaarheid die voor de professie specifieke naamgevingsproblemen oplost;

·         de ontwikkeling van een 3D-landschap waarin de ontwerpen in hun context kunnen worden teruggezocht.

 

1.3      Formulation of the problem

In a university of technology, designs are made (design study), examined (design research) and evaluated Jong et al.(2002). Making a design, the preliminary investigation and its conclusion, the programme of demands, only partly direct the solution. The design does not follow unequivocally and reproductably from a programme like a scientific prediction from its basic assumptions ceteris paribus. Even with a strict programme, alternatives (eventually unexpectable) are possible in design. This is most explicit in building design. The choice of a final alternative is determined by the context of the object to be designed. The market, the location and the designer (context of invention) belong to the broader present and future managerial, cultural, economical, technical, ecological, and mass-space-time context and perspective of the object. ‘Context’ is different on different levels of scale and cannot be foreseen completely in the programme.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTEXT                                       PERSPECTIVE

 

Variable per level of scale         and period of change.

For example:                                                        tentative nationally:

 

managerial/political:   initiative            < >        laissez-faire        7 years

cultural:                   traditional           < >       experimental       15 years

economics:              growth               < >            shrinkage       30 years

technical:                 combination       < >       specialization       60 years

ecological:               heterogeneous    < >      homogeneous     120 years

mass-space-time:     concentration     < >   deconcentration    240 years

 

Context and changing context (perspective)

 

The number of imaginable alternatives for buildings, mostly with a long term multifunctional programme of (conflicting) demands, is unconceivably large, subject to a combinatoric explosion of possible forms. Buildings and urban designs have a long period of use and they are earthbound. So they have to function in a changing context (perspective) that is unpredictable and not influenced by the programming authority, designer or user. From the viewpoint of their durability they should be able to accommodate varying programmes and daily changing aims of their inhabitants and users. This quality of building design is called ‘robustness’. ‘Flexibility’ is only part of it. So, from all artefacts, buildings have the most context sensitive function for use, perception and market, not to be evaluated without that context and therefore hardly comparable to each other (sometimes even unique). It is difficult to find comparable examples for design research to draw more general conclusions for design.

Design research concerns determined objects within determined contexts. Research by design (below grey) varies either the object (design study) or the context (typology) or even both (study by design):

 

 

OBJECT

 

determined

variable

CONTEXT               determined

Design Research

Design Study

                                  variable

Typology

Study by design

 

Even with a comparable programme of demands, not only their own diversity of solutions, but also the diversity of their contexts or perspectives to function in, is very large. Consequently, the diversity of rational reasons (determined by context) to choose a final alternative is even larger. So, building design research often has the character of an n=1 study with limited general value to other designs. Design research, based on more examples than one, is often ignored by designers, because on location many design relevant circumstances appear different from what the examined examples had in common. The descriptive interpretation of context by researchers differs from the imaginative interpretation of designers, that stresses possibilities rather than probabilities. Moreover, the principal often asks for a unique design, ‘exploiting’ rare qualities of context. So design decisions seldom can be founded on examples univocally and professionally by the lack of material for comparison.

 

For building design research with more general design relevant (context sensitive) conclusions, we need a database with a large number of designs and composing images to find different examples in comparable contexts. This places great demands on the possibilities of verbal and non verbal selection within such a database[i]. It has consequences on the effort of documentation per image. It has methodological implications in naming and defining countless possible architectural interventions and their effects in different contexts. For this purpose the Faculty of Architecture of the Delft Technical University (DUT) spent several years in developing an Image Archive of Architectural Interventions (IAAI), able to store thousands of images made per year in that faculty, retrievable amongst others by location, context, perspective and supposed effect within that context. Its prototype functioning on the internet now contains approximately 1500 documented images from 500 recent graduate projects equiped with logical sentence functions[j] as syntactically composed keywords. They are retrievable by alternate choice of images and keywords. The database is prepared in the future to mount 3D designs in a 3D map of the Netherlands allowing fly-through in a scenario chosen in advance, to see them at first glance in their supposed mass-space-time context. Historical images then can be recorded in their own former context and perspective.

 

Recording urban designs on a national, regional, local and technical level of scale in this archive makes these designs accessible for planning research on other universities and decision making institutions. Recording technical details of buildings makes them accessible to other technical faculties like Civil Engineering and Industrial Design in DUT, Architecture in TUE and various faculties abroad. As soon as these faculties would like to give more attention to the context-sensibility of their own design examples, other than building designs, easily can be recorded according to their level of scale. It will give the database a more general design orientation, stimulating cooperation in research between the technical faculties and decision making institutions.

1.4      Utilization

For the sake of research exchange between different technical faculties this year (2001) each faculty of the DUT made a comparable ‘portfolio of research’.

Within the portfolio of the Faculty of Architecture the further development of IAAI is of crucial importance for the themes and programmes summarized below.

 

Themes and Programmes

Programme leaders

existing databases

 

Architecture

 

 

 

Dutch Urban Architecture

Duin, Prof. ir. L. van[k]

x

 

Restoration of Cultural Heritage

Voorden, Prof.dr.ir. F. van

x

 

Architectural Design of (Mass) Housing

Risselada, Prof. ir. M.

x

 

Design Knowledge Systems and Digital Architecture

Tzonis, Prof. A.[l]

x

 

Concept and Materialisation

Fretton, Prof. T.

 

 

Modernity and Tradition

Risselada, Prof. ir. M.[m]

x

 

 

 

 

 

Urbanism

 

 

 

Techniques of urban design

Meyer, Prof.dr.ir. H.[n]

x

 

Delta design

Frieling, Prof. ir. D.H.

x

 

Urban transformations

Bekkering, Prof.ir. H.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Building Technology

 

 

 

Blob

Eekhout, Prof.dr.ir. M.[o]

 

 

ZAPPI

Eekhout, Prof.dr.ir. M.

x

 

Retrofitting

Rots, Prof.dr.ir. J.

 

 

Environments

Voorden, ir. M. van der

 

 

 

 

 

 

Real Estate & Project Management

 

 

 

Real Estate Management

Jonge, Prof.ir. H. de[p]

 

 

Housing Studies

Priemus, Prof.dr.ir. H.[q]

x

 

Project management

Geraerdts, ir. R.P.[r]

 

 

Management Fundamentals

Jonge, Prof.ir. H. de

 

 

 

The planned cross-connecting ‘Validated Integrated Projects’:

 

 

need a context sensible database, transforming and connecting the already existing databases in a digital format, gradually supplemented by non-digital sources (books, reports, exhibitions), the graduate studies and the new input of each research programme. By this database the research programmes can find and use each others design examples, having more mass to find comparable cases in comparable contexts.

 

A database like this has great advantages for design education, study, research and applications in national, regional and local planning. These applications will make further development self-supporting when a critical mass of easily retrievable design examples is reached. To reach such a status however requires an effort too big for a faculty or even a university alone. This is the reason to ask a subsidy by N.W.O./S.T.W. and for external social applications by Habiforum (E.M.R.) and I.C.E.S.  The faculty has made a preliminary investment for the protope and has substantial means for labour-intensive input. Approximately 3000 students, teachers and scientists have a personal interest in a worldwide accessible portfolio of their own work constituting a motivated professionally capacity for input. The currently developed input programme is a user friendly application, but too extended for many projects with their own standard input. A more tapered input for each project to be adapted by the suppliers themselves has to be developed to stimulate decentralized input.

 

The role of design in future decision making processes is described by van Loon (Loon 1998; Gunsteren and Loon 2000; Loon 2000) and Frieling, initiator of the IAAI (Frieling 1995; Frieling 1996; Frieling, Mitchell et al. 1996; Frieling 1997; Frieling 1998; Frieling, Reh et al. 1998; Frieling 1999). Frieling gives a summary of more than a decade of experimental research by design on this subject and its theoretical foundation, ending in the nationally applicated concept of Deltametropolis. This experience made clear that a database of design images is indispensable to make better and more quickly public decisions as a characteristic of a real metropolis. Recently Frieling started a large faculty project to design different perspectives on Deltametropolis, suited projects on a smaller scale and a decision process to bring them together in one perspective by a simulated public debate. About 80 graduating students of different faculties will make different options for Deltametropolis as in the meantime aimed in the 5th National Plan of Spatial Policy (VROM 2001b). The results should be retrievable for future decision making about spatial policy on national, regional and local levels of scale.

1.5      Aims

The primary aim of IAAI(registration) is to make existing drawings, images, connected context data and preliminary studies digitally accessible for further research, design and decision making.

This aim is in the first phase restricted to the faculty, and in a second phase extended to external applications like the development of the Deltametropolis. Consequently, researchers and students from the Faculty of Architecture are facilitated in, and stimulated to make retrievable, to evaluate, and to publish designs in a comparable way, and to use them for design research and research by design, the main focus of research in the faculty.

 

IAAI(registration) for the time being is limited to images of which the copyrights are reserved to the faculty or are otherwise free. By that means the knowledge of the faculty can be remembered, utilized and cashed. Such a 'faculty memory' prevents repeating innovation and stimulates technical and professional accumulation. Selecting from a non-selective magnitude of images however, requires far-reaching conditions to the documentation with the input of every image. The input is the bottleneck of any image archive. The most important derived aim then, is an attractive, fast, professionally relevant and embracing system for input per image, and likewise for output.

1.6      Research group

Many research groups will cooperate in this project.

 

Initiator prof.dr.ir. T.M. de Jong is motivated by the same scientific problems existing in ecology as in design research and research by design. The potential diversity and context sensibility of designs raises the same methodological difficulties to generalize as within the combinatoric explosion of species, ecological contexts and diversity within each species. There, image databases become urgent to find any basis for generalization in examples of different states of dispersion (form). The lowes levels of scale (molecular and cellular) have the least problems. Diversity of life increases until approximately 1km radius, and after that level it decreases again. So levels of scale are indispensible in the retrievability of comparable cases from a database.

De Jong has 20 years of experience in computing an programming in basic languages[s], however not in making advanced databases or GIS applications.

 

Project leader Prof.dr.ir. I.S. Sariyildiz started a € 1 mln project for a digital learning environment of which IAAI is a part.

 

For GIS applications the project is discussed with prof. Scholten[t] (VU Amsterdam, Geodan), prof. Oosterom (and Verbree[u], Geodesy DUT) and the CAD atelier of the Faculty of Architecture (van Loon[v], Krebbers[w]). On 3D modeling and script writing this proposal is commented by Stouffs[x] (Faculty of Architecture, chair prof. Sariyildiz[y]). On image databases the project is discussed with Huijsmans[z] (LIACS, University of Leiden). For advanced database functionality turning it linguistic, the project has to rely on the faculty Informatietechnologie en systemen DUT.

All of them are able to and interested in substantial contributions to the software.

 

The most important contribution, however, is the input. The data should be aquired from the research groups mentioned in paragraph 1.4.

 

2         Plan of work

In the diagram below a global plan of work is given per quarter.

 

 

 

 

2002-10-10  

 

 

2003

2004

2005

 

 

 

quarter

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

Input differentiation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2D images of existing building details, buildings etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Mediatheek of slides (Bijleveld)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Archive of maps (vacancy)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Architectural archive (Saariste)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Historical archive (van Geest)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Classic examples (Risselada, Haaksma)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2D images of designed future building details, buildings etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Graduate projects afterwards.) (DOS)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Graduate projects in advance (examencie., Curriculumvern) .).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Results of the pilot project Architectural Intervention (Klaasen)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

First educational module (Weeber)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Individual input via existing programme

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

3D images of designed future building details, buildings etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Portfolioproject (Sariyildiz)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Cad atelier (Barendse)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Cadlab (Koutamanis, vLoon)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Deltam (Tisma)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Individual input via existing programme

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

4D Moving and calculated images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

IAAI(DSS-E.M.R.) (Frieling)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Architecture lab (Oosterhuis)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Technical lab (Rots)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Sustainable Deltametropolis (Berkhout, Hafkamp)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Automation inputscripts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

connecting arbitrary databases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

protocol for Design Support Systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Database functionality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Commonness list

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Association list

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

Association files

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

Automatic translation English

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

Automatic translation French, German, Spanish

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

Feed back to the author

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

Deleting unsuccessful keywords

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

‘Linguistic’ database

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Programme of demands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Extending field for free keywords

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

Building a linguistic system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

Cleaning field bound keywords

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Output GIS-D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Buiding a GIS-D-facility