VOORBLAD IN PDF-FORMAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COLOFON

 

 

Editors:                                              T.M. de Jong (ed.)

                                                           M.J. Moens-Gigengack         

C. van den Akker

C.M. Steenbergen

                       

 

Book  production and design:           

 

Cover and frontispiece design:          Thomas Luuk Borest

 

Published and distributed by:            Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2004, Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde

Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture

P.O. Box 5043

2600 GA Delft

The Netherlands

Telephone:      +31 15 27 84737

Telefax:           +31 15 27 83030

 

 

Responsibility cover illustration:

Inspirit by the project Flagstaff: Roden Crater, by artist James Turrell, Arizona

Sources:

-         James Turrell: The Other Horizon; by Peter Noever, Daniel Birnbaum, Georges Didi-Hubermann, James Turrell (book)

-         Baumeister 8/01; p. 43-48

-         Architecture and Urbanism 02:07; nr 382

-         URL source: http://www.rodencrater.org


Sun wind water

earth life and living; legends for design

 

Prof.dr.ir. T. M. de Jong ed. 2004-03-15

Drs. M.J. Moens

Prof.dr.ir. C. van den Akker

Prof.dr.ir. C.M. Steenbergen

 

BkM1U01 territory

BkVk11 sun wind water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

www.bk.tudelft.nl/urbanism/team publications 2003

Contents

1  Sun.. 8

1.1  Energy. 9

1.2  Sun  24

1.3  Temperature. 37

1.4  Planting (Prof.dr.ir.C.M. Steenbergen; Drs. M.J. Moens) 52

2  Wind.. 90

2.1  Global atmosphere. 91

2.2  National choice of location. 96

2.3  Regional choice of location. 105

2.4  Local measures. 111

2.5  District and neighbourhood variants. 124

2.6  Allotment of hectares. 133

2.7  Sound and noise. 138

3  Water (Prof.dr.ir. C. van den Akker) 147

3.1  Water balance. 148

3.2  River drainage. 152

3.3  Water reservoirs. 167

3.4  Polders. 175

3.5  Networks and crossings. 189

4  Earth (Drs. M.J. Moens) 199

4.1  Kilometres: geomorphological landscapes. 201

4.2  Metres: soil units. 220

4.3  Millimetres: soil structure. 237

4.4  Micrometres: physical-chemical composition. 243

4.5  Soil pollution. 246

4.6  Site preparation. 264

4.7  Cables and pipes. 288

4.8  Map analysis. 312

5  Life.. 316

5.1  Diversity, scale and dispersion. 317

5.2  Ecologies. 325

5.3  Legends by scale. 347

5.4  Natural History. 365

5.5  Valuing Nature. 377

5.6  Managing Nature. 394

6  Human living.. 408

6.1  Adaptation and Accommodation. 409

6.2  The History of Dutch habitat. 434

6.3  Recent figures. 451

6.4  Densities. 475

7  Environment.. 495

7.1  Definition. 497

7.2  Environmental problems. 499

7.3  Environmental hygiene. 502

7.4  Transmission. 509

7.5  Immission and exposition. 517

7.6  Creating norms. 521

7.7  Environmental criteria for evaluation. 526

7.8  Environmental gains and losses due to building.. 533

8  Legends for design.. 549

8.1  Resolution and tolerance. 550

8.2  Scale-sensitivity. 551

8.3  Unconventional true scale legend units. 552

8.4  References on Legends for design. 555

8.5  Composition analysis. 556

8.6  The scale level at which one separates and mixes. 565

8.7  Legends for design. 588

8.8  Boundaries of imagination. 593

Enclosures.. 606

Enclosure 1 The taxonomy of Dutch plant families. 607

Enclosure 2 Rangordening van vestigingen naar omstreeks 2000 in Nederland aanwezig ‘draagvlak’ per vestiging in inwoners. 611

Enclosure 3 Tables token from the Statistical Yearbook 2001. 618

Enclosure 4 VNG table 1; Business types and their environmental impact expressed in metres  622

Enclosure 5 VNG table 2 Installation types and their environmental impact expressed in metres  636

Key words.. 639

Questions.. 664

 


Motivation

Sun, wind, water, earth and life touch our living senses immediately, always, everywhere and without any intervention of reason. They simply are there in their unmatched variety, moving us, our moods, memories, imaginations, intentions and plans.

 

However, the designer transforming sun into light, air into space and water into life touches pure mathematics next to senses. Mathematicians left alone destroy mathematics releasing it from senses, losing their unmatched beauty and relief, losing their sense for design. To restore that intimate relation, the most freeing part of our European cultural heritage my great examples are  Feynman’s lectures on physics, D’Arcy Thomson’s ‘On Growth and Form’ and Minnaert’s ‘Natuurkunde van het vrije veld’ (‘Outdoor physics’). Minnaert elaborated the missing step from feeling to estimating.

I am sitting in the sun. How much energy do I receive, how much I send back into universe?

I am walking in wind. How much pressure do I receive and how much power my muscles have to overcome? It is the same pressure giving form to the sand I walk on or giving form and movement to the birds above me! I am swimming in the oldest landscape of all ages, the sea. How can I survive?

 

No longer can I escape from reasoning, from looking for a formula, a behaviour that works. But this reasoning is next to senses and once I found a formula I can leave the reasoning behind going back into senses and sense. The formula takes its own path in my Excel sheet as a living thing. It ‘behaves’. Look! Does it take the same path as the sun, predicting my shadow? Put a pencil and a ruler in the sun. Measure, compare, lose or win your competition with the real sun as Copernicus did.

Mathematics have no longer much to do with boring calculations. Nowadays computers do the work, we do the learning. They sharpen our reasoning and senses. We see larger contexts and smaller details then ever before discovering scale. Discovering telescopic and microscopic scale we find the multiple universe we live in, freeing us from boredom forever, producing images no human can invent. We do not believe our eyes and ears, we discover them. It challenges our imagination in strange worlds no holiday can equal. Life math is a survival journey with excitement and suspense.

 

But do we understand the sun? No, according to Kant (1976) we design a sun behaving like the sun we know from our position and scale of time and space we live in. We never know for sure whether it will behave tomorrow in the same way as our sheet does. But we have made something that works here and now.

‘Yes! It works.’ That is designer’s joy.

 

Feynman, R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1977,1963) The Feynman lectures on physics I (Menlo Park, California) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company  ISBN 0-201-02010-6-H / 0-201-02116-1-P.

Feynman, R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1977,1964) The Feynman lectures on physics II (Menlo Park, California) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company  ISBN 0-201-02117-X-P / 0-201-02011-4-H.

Feynman, R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1966,1965) The Feynman lectures on physics III (Menlo Park, California) Addison-Wesley Publishing Company  ISBN 0-201-02118-X-P / 0-201-02114-9-H.

Kant, I. (1976) Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Frankfurt am Main) Suhrkamp Verlag.

Minnaert, M. G. J. (1974) De natuurkunde van 't vrije veld. Deel I. Licht en kleur in het landschap (Zutphen) Thieme & Cie  ISBN 90-03-90780-3.

Minnaert, M. G. J. (1975) De natuurkunde van 't vrije veld. Deel 2. Geluid, warmte, electriciteit (Zutphen) Thieme & Cie  ISBN 90-03-90790-0.

Minnaert, M. G. J. (1971) De natuurkunde van 't vrije veld. Deel 3. Rust en beweging (Zutphen) Thieme & Cie  ISBN 90-03-90840-0.

Minnaert, M. G. J. (1993) Light and color in the outdoors (New York, N.Y.,) Springer  ISBN 0.387.94413.3 p; 0.387.97935.2; 3.540.97935.2.

Thomson, D. A. W. (1961) On growth and form (Cambridge UK) Cambridge University Press  ISBN 0 521 43776 8 paperback.

 

References are given on the end of every sub-chapter. Authors are included in the final key word list.


1         Sun

1.1  Energy................................................................................................................................ 9

1.1.1     Entropy...................................................................................................................... 10

1.1.2     Energetic efficiency..................................................................................................... 12

1.1.3     Global energy............................................................................................................. 14

1.1.4     National energy........................................................................................................... 17

1.1.5     Power supply.............................................................................................................. 21

1.1.6     Local energy storage................................................................................................... 22

1.1.7     References to Energy.................................................................................................. 23

1.2  Sun...................................................................................................................................... 24

1.2.1     Looking from the universe (a, b and latitude l)................................................................ 24

1.2.2     Looking from the Sun (culmination g and declination d).................................................... 25

1.2.3     Looking back from Earth (azimuth and sunheight).......................................................... 26

1.2.4     Time on Earth............................................................................................................. 28

1.2.5     Calculating sunlight periods......................................................................................... 30

1.2.6     Shadow...................................................................................................................... 33

1.2.7     References Sun.......................................................................................................... 36

1.3  Temperature.................................................................................................................... 37

1.3.1     Long term variation...................................................................................................... 37

1.3.2     Seasonal variation....................................................................................................... 42

1.3.3     Daily variation............................................................................................................. 51

1.3.4     References Temperature.............................................................................................. 51

1.4  Planting (Prof.dr.ir.C.M. Steenbergen; Drs. M.J. Moens)........................................ 52

1.4.1     Introduction................................................................................................................ 52

1.4.2     Planting and Habitat.................................................................................................... 69

1.4.3     Tree planting and the urban space................................................................................ 76

1.4.4     Hedges...................................................................................................................... 86


1.1        Energy

The internationally accepted SI system of units defines energy and power by distance, time and mass as follows. As long as a force f causes acceleration a, a distance d is covered in a certain time t. Multiplying f by s produces the yielded energy fs, expressed in joules.
Energy per time t gives the performed power fs/t expressed in watts (see Fig. 1).

Speed and acceleration suppose distance and time:

d (distance)

d

d

 

-- = v (velocity)

-- = a (acceleration)

t (time)

t

t2

Linear momentum and force persuppose mass, velocity and acceleration:

 

d

d

m (mass)

-- m = i (momentum)

-- m = ma = f (force)

 

t

t2

 

x distance

/ time

 

d2

d2

-- m = e (energy)

-- m = e/t = p (power)

t2

t3

Energy is expressed in joules (J), power (energy per second) in watts (W)

 

J=kg*m2/sec2

W = J/sec

Old measures should be replaced as follows:

k= kilo(*103)

kWh = 3.6 MJ

kWh/year =  0.1142W

M= mega(*106)

kcal = 4.186 kJ

kcal/day = 0.0485W

G= giga(*109)

pk.h =  2.648 MJ

pk = hp = 735.5 W

T= tera(*1012)

ton TNT = 4.2 GJ

PJ/year = 31.7 MW

P= peta(*1015)

MTOE = 41.87 PJ

J/sec = 1 W

E= exa(*1018)

kgfm = 9.81 J

 

 

BTU = 1.055 kJ

W (watt) could be read as watt*year/year.

 

watt*sec = 1 J

 

The equivalent of 1 m3 natural gas (aeq), roughly 1 litre petrol, occasionally counts 1 watt*year:

Occasionally:

m3 aeq = 31.5 MJ and

aeq/year = 1 W, or

Wa = watt*year = 31.5 MJ

1 W = 1 watt*year/year

 

1 MJ = 0.031709792 Wa

1 GJ = 31.7 Wa

1 TJ = 31.7 kWa

1 PJ = 31.7 MWa

‘a’ from latin ‘annum’ (year)

Wa is watt during a year

‘k’ (kilo) means 1 000x

‘M’ (mega) means 1 000 000x

 

Fig. 1 Dimensions of energy

 

A year counts 365 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 31.536 Msec. So, 1 watt*year = 31.5 MW*sec = 31.5 MJ = 1 Wa.
Occasionally
the equivalent of 1 m3 natural gas (aeq) counts approximately 31.5 MJ as well. So:
m3 aeq = watt*year = Wa = 31,5 MJ (energy) and m3 aeq / year = watt = W (power).

So, read ‘Wa’ and think ‘1 m3 natural gas’ or ‘1 litre petrol’ or ‘1 kg coal’ and
read ‘W’ and think ‘1 m3 natural gas per year’ or
read ‘kW’ and think ‘1000 m3 natural gas per year’ and
read ‘kWh’ and think ‘one hour of 1000 m3 natural gas per year’.

So, 1 Wa = 1watt*year =
8 769 watt*hour (Wh), because there are 365 x 24 = 8 769 hours in a year, or
8.769 kilowatt*hour (kWh), becauses ‘k’ means 1 000, or
31 536 000 Ws (J), because there are 31 536 000 seconds in a year, or
31 
536 kJ, 31.5 MJ or 0.0315 GJ, because k = 1 000, M = 1 000 000 and G = 1 000 000 000.

This Wa measure is not only immediately interpretable as energy content of roughly 1 m3 natural gas, 1 litre petrol or 1 kg coal, but via the average amount of hours per year (8 775) it is also easily transferable by heart into electrical measures as Wh or kWh (and then via the number of seconds per hour (3 600) into the standard Ws=J). Moreover, in building design and ~management the year average is important and per year we may write this unit simply as W (watt). So, in this chapter for power we will use the usual standard W, known from lamps and other electric devices while for energy we will use W*year or Wa (‘a’ derived from latin ‘annum’, year). If we know the average use of power, energy costs depend on the duration of use. So, we do not pay power (in watts, joules per second), but energy (in joules, wattseconds, watthours, kilowatthours or wattyears): power x time.

A quiet person uses approximately 100 W per year, the equivalent of 100 m3 natural gas. That power is the same as the power of a candle or pilot light or the amount of solar energy/m2 on our latitude. That is a lucky coincidence as well. The power of solar light varies from 0 (at night) to 1000W (at full sunlight in summer) around an average of approximately 100 W. Burning a lamp of 100 W during a year takes 100 watt*year as well, but electric light is more expensive.[1]

Crude oil is measured in barrels of 159 litres. So, if one barrel costs € 25, a litre costs € 0.16. However, a litre petrol (1 Wa) from the petrol station after refining and taxes costs more than € 1. Natural gas needs less refinary. Because 1 m3 natural gas (1Wa) now costs approximately € 0,30[a], a year burning of a pilot light (100 Wa) costs approximately € 30,-. However, an electric Wa costs approximately € 0.70, more than 2 times as much as natural gas. Why?

1.1.1        Entropy

Electric energy is more expensive than energy content of gas or coal because the efficiency of electricity production can utilise approximately 38% from the energy content of fossile fuels only. The rest is necessarily lost as heat. That heat could be used for space heating, but transport of heat appeared to be too expensive more than once. Enterprises needing electricity and heat as well could gain a profit by generating both on their own (warmtekrachtkoppeling, WKK[b]). The electrical yield is expressed as ‘kWhe (‘e’ = electric), the yield of heat as ‘kWhth (‘th’ = thermic).

Here we meet the working of two main laws of thermodynamics. No energy gets lost by conversion (first main law of thermodynamics), but it degrades (second main law of thermodynamics). By any conversion only a part of the original energy can be utilised. The rest is dispersed, mostly as heat. So, it is no longer applicably concentrated in a point of application. Without ‘help from outside’ (in a ‘closed system’) energy conversion can only partly direct energy on any application, concentrate energy bearing particles, but by any conversion in total the disorder (entropy) grows.

In Fig. 2 all possible distributions of n = {1,2,3,4) particles in two rooms are represented. If one marks every individual particle by A, B, C, D, one can count the possibilities of configuration per state k. These determine the probability P(n,k) this state will occur. Extremely high of low values of k represent concentration in one room or the other.

 

Fig. 2 The distribution of particles in two rooms

 

When the numer of particles grows (for example from 10 to 100) the normal distribution becomes narrower (Fig. 3). That means the state k = n / 2 (sprawl) becomes more probable.

 

Fig. 3 The decreasing probability of concentration with a growing number of particles

 

In Fig. 3 below a probable and an improbable distribution of 100 particles within a cylinder without external influences are drawn. The probability of a defined state of dispersion has a positive relation with entropy S, dependent on the integrally summed heat content Q per temperature T:

 

 

This formula shows that a higher heat content increases entropy S, but a higher temperature decreases it. If we keep heat content the same and increase volume, then concentration, pressure and temperature decrease (Boyle-Gay Lussac), so entropy will increase. Storage (concentration) decreases entropy.

The (change of) force by which a piston is pushed out of a cylinder is equal to the proportion of (change of) energy and entropy Fig. 4.

 

Fig. 4 Carnot-engine

 

In a cylinder engine, alternating states of dispersion are used to convert imported disordered energy (heat) partly into directed movement. It is only possible by exporting part of the heat in an even more dispersed form (cooling). The necessary event of cooling makes an efficiency of 100% impossible and increases entropy in a larger environmental system. The reverse, adding rotating energy to this engine the principle can be used for heating (heat pump) and cooling (refrigerator).

1.1.2        Energetic efficiency

The proportion of the applicable part from total energy content of a primary source is the efficiency of the conversion. In Fig. 5 some conversion efficiencies are represented.

Device or process

chemical->thermic

thermic->mechanisal

mechanical->electric

electric->mechanical

electric->radiation

electric->chemical

chemical->electric

radiation->electric

thermic->electric

efficiency

100%

electric dynamo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

electric motor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90%

steam boiler

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HR-boiler