VOORBLAD IN PDFFORMAT
COLOFON
Editors: T.M.
de Jong (ed.)
M.J.
MoensGigengack
C. van den Akker
C.M. Steenbergen
Book production and design:
Cover
and frontispiece design: Thomas
Luuk Borest
Published
and distributed by: Publicatiebureau
Bouwkunde
2004,
Publicatiebureau Bouwkunde
Delft
University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture
P.O.
Box 5043
2600
GA Delft
The
Netherlands
Telephone: +31 15 27 84737
Telefax: +31 15 27 83030
Responsibility cover illustration:
Inspirit by the project Flagstaff: Roden Crater,
by artist James Turrell, Arizona
Sources:

James Turrell: The Other Horizon; by Peter Noever,
Daniel Birnbaum, Georges DidiHubermann, James Turrell (book)

Baumeister 8/01; p. 4348

Architecture and Urbanism 02:07; nr 382

URL source: http://www.rodencrater.org
earth
life and living; legends for design
Prof.dr.ir. T. M. de Jong ed. 20040315
Drs.
M.J. Moens
Prof.dr.ir.
C. van den Akker
Prof.dr.ir.
C.M. Steenbergen
BkM1U01 territory
BkVk11 sun
wind water
www.bk.tudelft.nl/urbanism/team
publications 2003
Contents
1.4 Planting (Prof.dr.ir.C.M. Steenbergen; Drs.
M.J. Moens)
2.2 National
choice of location
2.3 Regional
choice of location
2.5 District and
neighbourhood variants
3 Water
(Prof.dr.ir. C. van den Akker)
4.1 Kilometres:
geomorphological landscapes
4.3 Millimetres:
soil structure
4.4 Micrometres:
physicalchemical composition
5.1 Diversity,
scale and dispersion
6.1 Adaptation
and Accommodation
6.2 The History of Dutch habitat
7.7 Environmental
criteria for evaluation
7.8 Environmental
gains and losses due to building
8.3 Unconventional
true scale legend units
8.4 References
on Legends for design
8.6 The scale
level at which one separates and mixes.
Enclosure 1 The taxonomy of
Dutch plant families
Enclosure 3 Tables token from
the Statistical Yearbook 2001
Enclosure 4 VNG table 1;
Business types and their environmental impact expressed in metres
Enclosure 5 VNG table 2
Installation types and their environmental impact expressed in metres
Sun, wind, water, earth and life touch our living senses immediately, always, everywhere and without any intervention of reason. They simply are there in their unmatched variety, moving us, our moods, memories, imaginations, intentions and plans.
However, the designer transforming sun into light, air into space and water into life touches pure mathematics next to senses. Mathematicians left alone destroy mathematics releasing it from senses, losing their unmatched beauty and relief, losing their sense for design. To restore that intimate relation, the most freeing part of our European cultural heritage my great examples are Feynman’s lectures on physics, D’Arcy Thomson’s ‘On Growth and Form’ and Minnaert’s ‘Natuurkunde van het vrije veld’ (‘Outdoor physics’). Minnaert elaborated the missing step from feeling to estimating.
I am sitting in the sun. How much energy do I receive, how much I send back into universe?
I am walking in wind. How much pressure do I receive and how much power my muscles have to overcome? It is the same pressure giving form to the sand I walk on or giving form and movement to the birds above me! I am swimming in the oldest landscape of all ages, the sea. How can I survive?
No longer can I escape from reasoning, from looking for a formula, a behaviour that works. But this reasoning is next to senses and once I found a formula I can leave the reasoning behind going back into senses and sense. The formula takes its own path in my Excel sheet as a living thing. It ‘behaves’. Look! Does it take the same path as the sun, predicting my shadow? Put a pencil and a ruler in the sun. Measure, compare, lose or win your competition with the real sun as Copernicus did.
Mathematics have no longer much to do with boring calculations. Nowadays computers do the work, we do the learning. They sharpen our reasoning and senses. We see larger contexts and smaller details then ever before discovering scale. Discovering telescopic and microscopic scale we find the multiple universe we live in, freeing us from boredom forever, producing images no human can invent. We do not believe our eyes and ears, we discover them. It challenges our imagination in strange worlds no holiday can equal. Life math is a survival journey with excitement and suspense.
But do we understand the sun? No, according to Kant (1976) we design a sun behaving like the sun we know from our position and scale of time and space we live in. We never know for sure whether it will behave tomorrow in the same way as our sheet does. But we have made something that works here and now.
‘Yes! It works.’ That is designer’s joy.
Feynman,
R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1977,1963) The Feynman lectures on physics I (Menlo Park,
California) AddisonWesley Publishing Company
ISBN 0201020106H / 0201021161P.
Feynman,
R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1977,1964) The Feynman lectures on physics II (Menlo Park,
California) AddisonWesley Publishing Company
ISBN 020102117XP / 0201020114H.
Feynman,
R. P., R. B. Leighton, et al. (1966,1965) The Feynman lectures on physics III (Menlo Park,
California) AddisonWesley Publishing Company
ISBN 020102118XP / 0201021149H.
Kant, I. (1976) Kritik der reinen
Vernunft (Frankfurt am Main) Suhrkamp Verlag.
Minnaert, M. G. J. (1974) De natuurkunde
van 't vrije veld. Deel I. Licht en kleur in het landschap (Zutphen) Thieme
& Cie ISBN 9003907803.
Minnaert, M. G. J. (1975) De
natuurkunde van 't vrije veld. Deel 2. Geluid, warmte, electriciteit
(Zutphen) Thieme & Cie ISBN
9003907900.
Minnaert, M. G. J. (1971) De
natuurkunde van 't vrije veld. Deel 3. Rust en beweging (Zutphen) Thieme
& Cie ISBN 9003908400.
Minnaert, M. G. J. (1993) Light
and color in the outdoors (New York, N.Y.,) Springer ISBN 0.387.94413.3 p; 0.387.97935.2; 3.540.97935.2.
Thomson, D. A. W. (1961) On
growth and form (Cambridge UK) Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 43776 8 paperback.
References are given on the end of every subchapter. Authors are included in the final key word list.
1.1 Energy................................................................................................................................ 9
1.1.1 Entropy...................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.2 Energetic efficiency..................................................................................................... 12
1.1.3 Global energy............................................................................................................. 14
1.1.4 National energy........................................................................................................... 17
1.1.5 Power supply.............................................................................................................. 21
1.1.6 Local energy storage................................................................................................... 22
1.1.7 References to Energy.................................................................................................. 23
1.2 Sun...................................................................................................................................... 24
1.2.1 Looking from the universe (a, b and
latitude l)................................................................ 24
1.2.2 Looking from the Sun (culmination g and
declination d).................................................... 25
1.2.3 Looking back from Earth (azimuth and
sunheight).......................................................... 26
1.2.4 Time on Earth............................................................................................................. 28
1.2.5 Calculating sunlight periods......................................................................................... 30
1.2.6 Shadow...................................................................................................................... 33
1.2.7 References Sun.......................................................................................................... 36
1.3 Temperature.................................................................................................................... 37
1.3.1 Long term variation...................................................................................................... 37
1.3.2 Seasonal variation....................................................................................................... 42
1.3.3 Daily variation............................................................................................................. 51
1.3.4 References Temperature.............................................................................................. 51
1.4 Planting (Prof.dr.ir.C.M. Steenbergen;
Drs. M.J. Moens)........................................ 52
1.4.1 Introduction................................................................................................................ 52
1.4.2 Planting and Habitat.................................................................................................... 69
1.4.3 Tree planting and the urban space................................................................................ 76
1.4.4 Hedges...................................................................................................................... 86
The
internationally accepted SI system of units defines energy and power by distance, time and mass as
follows. As long as a force f causes acceleration a, a
distance d is covered in a certain time t. Multiplying f by s produces the
yielded energy fs, expressed in joules.
Energy per time t gives the performed power fs/t expressed in watts (see Fig. 1).
Speed and acceleration suppose distance and time: 

d (distance) 
d 
d 

 = v (velocity) 
 = a (acceleration) 
t (time) 
t 
t^{2} 
Linear momentum and force persuppose mass,
velocity and acceleration: 


d 
d 
m (mass) 
 m = i (momentum) 
 m = ma = f (force) 

t 
t^{2} 

x distance 
/ time 

d^{2} 
d^{2} 

m = e (energy) 

m = e/t = p (power) 

t^{2} 
t^{3} 

Energy is expressed in joules (J), power
(energy per second) in watts (W) 


J=kg*m^{2}/sec^{2} 
W = J/sec 
Old measures should be replaced as follows: 

k= kilo(*10^{3}) 
kWh = 3.6 MJ 
kWh/year =
0.1142W 
M= mega(*10^{6}) 
kcal = 4.186 kJ 
kcal/day = 0.0485W 
G= giga(*10^{9}) 
pk.h = 2.648 MJ 
pk = hp = 735.5 W 
T= tera(*10^{12}) 
ton TNT = 4.2 GJ 
PJ/year = 31.7 MW 
P= peta(*10^{15}) 
MTOE = 41.87 PJ 
J/sec = 1 W 
E= exa(*10^{18}) 
kgfm = 9.81 J 


BTU = 1.055 kJ 
W (watt) could be read as watt*year/year. 

watt*sec =
1 J 

The equivalent of 1 m^{3} natural gas (aeq), roughly 1 litre
petrol, occasionally
counts 1 watt*year: 

Occasionally: 
m^{3} aeq = 31.5 MJ and 
aeq/year = 1 W, or 
Wa = watt*year = 31.5 MJ 
1 W = 1 watt*year/year 


1 MJ =
0.031709792 Wa 1 GJ = 31.7 Wa 1 TJ = 31.7 kWa 1 PJ = 31.7 MWa 
‘a’ from latin ‘annum’ (year) Wa is watt during a year ‘k’ (kilo) means 1 000x ‘M’ (mega) means 1 000 000x 


Fig. 1 Dimensions of energy 


A year counts 365 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 31.536 Msec.
So, 1 watt*year = 31.5 MW*sec = 31.5 MJ = 1 Wa.
Occasionally the
equivalent of 1 m^{3} natural gas (aeq)
counts approximately 31.5 MJ as well. So:
m^{3} aeq = watt*year = Wa = 31,5 MJ (energy) and m^{3}
aeq / year = watt = W (power).
So, read ‘Wa’ and think ‘1 m^{3} natural gas’
or ‘1 litre petrol’ or ‘1 kg coal’ and
read ‘W’ and think ‘1 m^{3} natural gas per year’ or
read ‘kW’ and think ‘1000 m^{3} natural gas per year’ and
read ‘kWh’ and think ‘one hour of 1000 m^{3} natural gas per year’.
So, 1 Wa = 1watt*year =
8 769 watt*hour (Wh), because there are 365 x 24 = 8 769 hours in a
year, or
8.769 kilowatt*hour (kWh), becauses ‘k’ means 1 000, or
31 536 000 Ws
(J), because there are 31 536 000
seconds in a year, or
31 536
kJ, 31.5 MJ or 0.0315 GJ, because k = 1 000,
M = 1 000 000 and
G = 1 000 000 000.
This Wa measure is not only immediately interpretable as energy content of
roughly 1 m^{3} natural gas, 1 litre petrol or 1 kg coal, but via the
average amount of hours per year (8 775) it is also easily transferable by
heart into electrical measures as Wh or kWh (and then via the number of seconds
per hour (3 600) into the standard Ws=J).
Moreover, in building design and ~management the year average is important and per
year we may write this unit simply as W (watt). So, in this chapter for power
we will use the usual standard W, known from lamps and other electric devices
while for energy we will use W*year or Wa (‘a’ derived from latin
‘annum’, year). If we know the average use of power, energy costs depend on the
duration of use. So, we do not pay power (in
watts, joules per second), but energy (in joules, wattseconds,
watthours, kilowatthours or wattyears): power x time.
A quiet person uses approximately 100 W per year, the
equivalent of 100 m^{3} natural gas. That power is the same as the power of a
candle or pilot light or the amount of solar energy/m^{2} on our
latitude. That is a lucky coincidence as well. The power of solar light varies
from 0 (at night) to 1000W (at full sunlight in summer) around an average of
approximately 100 W. Burning a lamp of 100 W during a year takes 100 watt*year
as well, but electric light is more expensive.[1]
Crude
oil is measured in barrels of 159 litres. So, if one
barrel costs € 25, a litre costs € 0.16. However, a litre petrol (1 Wa) from the petrol
station after refining and taxes costs more than € 1. Natural gas needs less
refinary. Because 1 m^{3} natural gas (1Wa) now costs
approximately €
0,30[a], a year burning of a pilot light
(100 Wa) costs approximately € 30,. However, an electric Wa costs
approximately €
0.70, more than 2 times as much as natural gas. Why?
Electric energy is more expensive than energy content
of gas or coal because the efficiency of
electricity production can utilise approximately 38% from the energy content of
fossile fuels only. The rest is necessarily lost as heat. That heat could be
used for space heating, but transport of heat appeared to be too
expensive more than once. Enterprises needing electricity and heat as well
could gain a profit by generating both on their own (warmtekrachtkoppeling, WKK[b]).
The electrical yield is expressed as ‘kWh_{e}’
(‘e’ = electric), the yield of heat as ‘kWh_{th}’
(‘th’ = thermic).
Here we meet the working of two main laws of
thermodynamics. No energy gets lost by
conversion (first main law of thermodynamics),
but it degrades (second main law of thermodynamics). By any conversion only a
part of the original energy can be utilised. The rest is dispersed, mostly as
heat. So, it is no longer applicably concentrated in a point of application.
Without ‘help from outside’ (in a ‘closed system’) energy conversion can only partly direct energy on any application,
concentrate energy bearing particles, but by any conversion in total the
disorder (entropy) grows.
In Fig. 2 all possible distributions of n = {1,2,3,4) particles in
two rooms are represented. If one marks every individual particle by A, B, C,
D, one can count the possibilities of configuration per state k. These determine the
probability P(n,k) this state will occur.
Extremely high of low values of k represent concentration in one room or the
other.


Fig. 2 The distribution of
particles in two rooms 

When the numer of particles grows (for example from 10 to 100) the normal distribution becomes narrower (Fig. 3). That means the state k = n / 2 (sprawl) becomes more probable.


Fig. 3 The decreasing probability of concentration with a growing number of
particles 

In Fig. 3 below a probable and an improbable distribution of
100 particles within a cylinder without external influences are drawn. The
probability of a defined state of dispersion has a positive relation with
entropy S, dependent on the integrally
summed heat content Q per temperature T:
_{
}
This
formula shows that a higher heat content increases entropy S, but a higher
temperature decreases it. If we keep heat content the same and increase volume,
then concentration, pressure and temperature decrease (BoyleGay Lussac), so entropy will increase. Storage (concentration) decreases entropy.
The
(change of) force by which a piston is pushed out of a cylinder is equal to the proportion of
(change of) energy and entropy Fig. 4.


Fig. 4 Carnotengine 

In a
cylinder engine, alternating states of dispersion are used to convert imported
disordered energy (heat) partly into directed movement. It is only possible by
exporting part of the heat in an even more dispersed form (cooling). The
necessary event of cooling makes an efficiency of 100% impossible and increases
entropy in a larger environmental system. The reverse, adding rotating energy
to this engine the principle can be used for heating (heat pump) and cooling
(refrigerator).
The
proportion of the applicable part from total energy content of a primary source
is the efficiency of the conversion. In Fig. 5 some conversion efficiencies are represented.
Device or process 
chemical>thermic 
thermic>mechanisal 
mechanical>electric 
electric>mechanical 
electric>radiation 
electric>chemical 
chemical>electric 
radiation>electric 
thermic>electric 
efficiency 
100% 

electric dynamo 










electric motor 










90% 

steam boiler 










HRboiler 



