urban, architectural and technological design


Introductions on sections  (see also priliminary Dutch version)



T.M. de Jong

D.J.M. van der Voordt


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       Preface                                                           Jacob Fokkema

1     Introduction                                                      Taeke de Jong, Theo van der Voordt                           7

2     Languages                                                       Willem Dijkhuis                                                        11

3     Criteria for scientific study and design                Taeke de Jong, Theo van der Voordt                         19


A    NAMING AND DESCRIBING                                                                                                       33

4     Naming components and Concepts                    Taeke de Jong, Jürgen Rosemann                              35

5     Retrieval and reference                                    Taeke de Jong, Theo van der Voordt                         43

6     Descriptive research                                         Wendelien Lans, Theo van der Voordt                       53

7     Historical research                                           Otakar Macel                                                           61

8     Map study                                                        Riet Moens                                                              71

9     Casuistry resulting in laws                                 Fred Hobma, Loes Schutte-Postma                            79


B     DESIGN RESEARCH AND TYPOLOGY                                                                                      87

10    Design research                                               Taeke de Jong, Leen van Duin                                  89

11    Designerly Enquiry                                           Jack Breen                                                               95

12    Typological Research                                       Taeke de Jong, Henk Engel                                     103

13    Concept and Type                                            Bernard Leupen                                                      107

14    Analysis of Buildings                                        Jan Molema                                                            117

15    Plan analysis                                                    Han Meyer                                                             125

16    Design driven research                                     Jack Breen                                                             137


C     EVALUATING                                                                                                                            149

17    Ex post evaluation of buildings                           Theo van der Voordt, Herman van Wegen               151

18    Ex ante research                                              Edward Hulsbergen, Pity van der Schaaf                  159

19    Ex ante performance evaluation of housing        Andre Thomsen                                                      163

20    Evaluating prototypes                                        Theo van der Voordt                                               169

21    Comparing and evaluating drawings                   Taeke de Jong                                                        173


D    MODELLING                                                                                                                               179

22    Modelling reality                                               Ina Klaasen                                                            181

23    Verbal Models                                                 Taeke de Jong                                                        189

24    Mathematical Models                                       Taeke de Jong, Rein de Graaf                                  203

25    Visualisation and architecture                            Alexander Koutamanis                                            231

26    The empirical cycle                                          Hugo Priemus                                                         249

27    Forecasting and Problem Spotting                      Taeke de Jong, Hugo Priemus                                 253


E     PROGRAMMING AND OPTIMISING                                                                                         263

28    Urban Programming Research                          Piet Guyt, Edward Hulsbergen                                 265

29    Programming of buildings                                  Theo van der Voordt, Herman van Wegen               271

30    Programming Building Construction                   Mick Eekhout, Ype Cuperus                                    279

31    Designing a City Hall                                        Carel Weeber, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan       287

32    Design by optimisation                                      Peter Paul van Loon                                               293

33    Optimising performance requirements                Piet Houben                                                           305

34    The environmental maximisation method            Kees Duijvestein                                                     313

F     TECHNICAL STUDY                                                                                                                  321

35    Redesign and renovation of buildings                  Leo Verhoef                                                           323

36    Approaches to the Study of Building Services

       and Installations                                                Bob Schalkoort                                                       327

37    Methodical design of load-bearing

       constructions in buildings                                   Wim Kamerling                                                      339

38    Classification and combination                           Ype Cuperus                                                          345

39    Methodology and component development         Mick Eekhout                                                         355

40    Industrial design methods                                  Alex Jager                                                              367

41    Future ICT developments                                  Sevil Sariyildiz, Rudi Stouffs, Özer Çiftçioğlu,

                                                                              Bige Tunçer                                                           377


G     DESIGN STUDY                                                                                                                          387

42    Creating space of thought                                 Herman Hertzberger                                               389

43    Perceiving and conceiving                                 Herman Hertzberger                                               399

44    Formation of the image                                     Taeke de Jong, Jürgen Rosemann                            413

45    Experience, intuition and conception                   Adriaan Geuze, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan      419

46    Designing an office                                           Jan Brouwer, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan         423

47    Designing a village                                            Jan Heeling, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan          429

48    Urban design methods                                      John Westrik                                                          433

49    Designing in a determined context                     Taeke de Jong                                                        443


H    STUDY BY DESIGN                                                                                                                   453

50    Types of Study by Design                                 Theo van der Voordt, Taeke de Jong                        455

51    Designing Naturalis in a changing context          Fons Verheijen, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan     459

52    Designing a building for art and culture              Wiek Röling, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan          465

53    Contemplations for copenhagen                         Wim van den Bergh                                                473

54    Learning from The Bridge project                      Jack Breen                                                             483

55    Creating non-orthogonal architecture                 Karel Vollers                                                          487

56    Design in strategy                                             Dirk Frieling                                                           491


57    Epilogue                                                           Theo van der Voordt, Ype Cuperus                          503


       Bibliography                                                                                                                                  507


       Index of figures and tables                                                                                                              527


       Index                                                                                                                                            531



Introductions on sections





4       Naming components and Concepts                                Taeke de Jong, Jürgen Rosemann                                               35

5       Retrieval and reference                                                      Taeke de Jong, Theo van der Voordt                                          43

6       Descriptive research                                                          Wendelien Lans, Theo van der Voordt                                      53

7       Historical research                                                              Otakar Macel                                                                                   61

8       Map study                                                                           Riet Moens                                                                                      71

9       Casuistry resulting in laws                                                Fred Hobma, Loes Schutte-Postma                                             79



An important condition for scientific work is a conceptual framework and careful de­scrip­tion of the subject to be studied. Naming, describing and referring are also essential constituents of study related to design.


Naming components and concepts

In their contribution, De Jong and Rosemann stress the importance of concepts in design, as well as their focus, supposed scale, possible overlaps. The lack of concepts in naming the mountain of possible forms and transformations whilst communicating on design actually is a problem for the science of designing. It causes a proliferation of neologisms, often not to be fathomed by outsiders. Definition does not always offer a solution. For that purpose the constituent concepts fail that are presumed when a definition is in the making. Defining is preceeded by the conditional positioning of concepts A and B vis-à-vis one another: which concepts A pre-supposes concept B to be defined? May concepts A be named?

It is important to avoid a change of level of abstraction in a discourse or use of ‘legenda’, the ‘things to be read’, in construction. Mistakes preceding logical ones like these often play a rôle when designs are discussed. Designers tend to use rather paradoxical expressions whilst commenting on their design, like ‘concentrated deconcentration’. Words often fail to suggest the world of shapes.


Retrieval and reference

The contribution of de Jong and van der Voordt dovetails both practically and theoretically with suggestions vis-à-vis citations of scientific results and facilitating that.


Descriptive research

Lans and Van der Voordt explore the value of a painstaking description of reality for theory development and the practice of designing. They argue to describe facts or designs in such a way that, ‘ex ante’, a minimal amount of inter-connections is suggested. That description should be clearly distinguished from the interpretation of facts and the establishment of relationships. Criticism by way of comparing different interpretations of the same material depends on this in order to exist at all. Concrete examples of study illustrate advantages and disadvantages of the phenomenological approach. The authors advocate to raise the dominant form of design study – analyses of plans and comparison of previous cases – to a higher level. In addition, process description is discussed by way of two examples: the planning process of the ‘Bijlmermeer’ project of the City of Amsterdam in the sixties, and the individual one, and one of thought as well, of a designer of architecture. Both studies yielded relevant insights for the theories of planning and of architecture.


Historical research

Macel shows that the results of historical research depend on the interpretation of history as a science. His contribution consists of three parts: 1) heuristics (how to deal with historical sources and references), 2) analysis (how to analyse text and drawings dating from the past), and 3) interpretation (focusing on issues such as context, typology, style and meaning). Finally he reflects on architectural history as a social science and the relationship between historical research and architectural criticism.


Map Study

Moens’ contribution focuses on the formal and functional description of the earth’s surface, on the basis of aerial photographs and maps. It discusses several types of maps; how they are made and how they may be used as support of design decisions. In addition, traps and foot holes are indicated in order to prevent faulty interpretation of the towers of map-making. Without interpretation, it could not be done at all. Just think about the ‘things to be read’, the units of the legend and choosing them. The degree and measure of interpretation is then at stake; and to what level they are suggested. Only after description the topographical facts should be placed into mutual relations according to a model. In the case of topographical maps of the military the problem becomes clear. Different connections are already pre-supposed in them; no longer susceptive to design decisions.


Casuistry resulting in laws

Most ancient social application of induction, a distinct set of cases within one general ruling, is the law. The juridical method where casuistry leads to jurisprudence is a predecessor of the scientific method. Facts, their modelling, debate and inter-subjective judgement play an important rôle.

Hobma and Schutte discuss the importance of legal study in the context of designing. On one hand they make practical distinctions, based on straight application of legal research: essentially retrieval and sorting; for instance for getting a building license. On the other, they deal with scientific legal study, explicitly aiming for a more general kind of knowledge.

The Chapter is consolidated in this section, while this prolegomenon from quarters not exclusively empirical gives a feeling for a scientific approach as it applies in the domain of architecture. An exclusively empirical approach fails to give a solution for many problems in this respect.



Together, the five sections reflect the value of descriptive study, the necessity of a clear, unambiguous terminology, and checking points to pre-empt all too subjective interpretations, or even faulty ones, of reality.






10     Design research                                                                  Taeke de Jong, Leen van Duin                                                     89

11     Designerly Enquiry                                                            Jack Breen                                                                                       95

12     Typological Research                                                        Taeke de Jong, Henk Engel                                                        103

13     Concept and Type                                                              Bernard Leupen                                                                            107

14     Analysis of Buildings                                                        Jan Molema                                                                                   117

15     Plan analysis                                                                       Han Meyer                                                                                    125

16     Design driven research                                                      Jack Breen                                                                                     137


In empirical study the hypothesis functions as an object of verification in an existing reality. Esta­blis­hing a hypothesis itself scarcely figures as an object of methodological thought. Usually the hypothesis of a study is considered to be ‘free’. With the design as a hypothesis this would also be the case, if that would not result most of the time from the designers study.

The architectural design is nevertheless in all its stages a fact (‘factum’, ‘artefact’) in so far as it has been made with considerable effort; before it even functioned realistically enough to be checked. In its several stages of development an architectural design is not a real and working object. That enrichment is achieved ‘ex post’, when it is executed and put into a context of use; or when, ‘ex ante’, a mathematical or material model of it has been made for evaluative assessment. At that time the design has produced two things:


·          the hypothesis ‘This design will work’, and:

·          a reality or model to test this hypothesis.


Only if a design can be realised is it a model. The type entails the comparison of models. There are types of models, not models of types. Following the criterion of Quatremère de Quincy, quoted by Leupen (page ), the type is not yet a model. It can not be copied in reality. Like an intuition it can not act as a model for that reality. By the same token a processing by design is needed. That applies also, although less, for the architectural notion ‘concept’ in the sense of ‘conception’, e. g. aiming at communication and consensus between designers and members of the construction team before a design or model exists.


Therefore not every content of experience is a model. If the notion of a model would be that encompassing, it would lose its meaning and crucial applicability in sciences. What is a model then? In the present section different definitions are used. Not only spatial relations (form, composition) and connections (structure) may be read from a model. A model allows for effect analyses and critical evaluations before execution. If a hypothesis on existing reality – or a design for a possible one – is to be tested inter-subjectively, it is a model.


Design research

Van Duin and De Jong give a classification of possible studies when a context is determined.


Designerly enquiry

Breen explores what kind of study is needed before the design is ready for design research. How could we study design before it is a model to be realised and tested?


Typological research

A type is a tool, not yet a model. To elaborate a type into a design we still need a concept as Leupen will explain. Engel and De Jong give a classification of types. The design with a certain function satisfactory on this spot may be a failure elsewhere. How could we extract more context-independent types out of design research?


Concept and type

A concept summarises crucial elements of context and the object to be designed. Leupen explains the relation of concept and type in making designs. This making requires a ‘technique’ in the connotation of Ancient Greece (teknè, art, capability; poèsis, making). People who never designed will not be able to conceive of it while it is hard to transfer it verbally, in terms of mathematics, or even as straight pictures. This technique is increasingly supported by sketching and tutoring during designing, by specific computers programs, individually.


Analysis of buildings and plan analysis

Molema and Meyer give examples of analysing existing architectural and urban designs. There are more design methods than designers. The emphasis on design methods in the study of design of the sixties has shifted from process diagrams with stages and arrows to more spatial components: the toolbox of the designer, his means of design and the classification of design interventions.


Design driven research

Breen examines the potential for design driven research in academic environments. Making a design as such is part of the academic education in design; by the same token partial to design research. If the making of a design would not be the object of scientific study, a design education at the academic level would lack justification.



What may be studied in a design before a model of it exists? It is the model itself that should be made. Predecessors of the model do require attention here: the types, concepts, and other means of design. They are the main subject of this section; the next one will deal with the forming of the model following design.






17     Ex post evaluation of buildings                                        Theo van der Voordt, Herman van Wegen                              151

18     Ex ante research                                                                  Edward Hulsbergen, Pity van der Schaaf                                 159

19     Ex ante performance evaluation of housing                   Andre Thomsen                                                                           163

20     Evaluating prototypes                                                       Theo van der Voordt                                                                   169

21     Comparing and evaluating drawings                               Taeke de Jong                                                                               173


In addition to the intended effects of a design as they are formulated in the programme of requirements many effects not intended and further consequences may become manifest. This part of the book discusses if and how these effects can be predicted ex ante or be measured ex post.


Ex post evaluation of buildings

The effects of a design can be ascertained in the most simple and precise way after the building process, when the object has been taken into use. By that time circumstances in terms of policy, culture, economics, technicalities, ecology and space are also known. In these fields the effects must be evaluated seperately, and, furthermore, social debate determines the weight of each field. In the contribution of Van der Voordt en Van Wegen methods and techniques of evaluating research ex post are discussed. A lot of experience has been gained in this both nationally and internationally. The contribution focuses on a discussion of relevant themes for evaluation, linked to quality assessment and optimal matching between demand and supply. A combination is advocated of comparative description and analysis of precedents and the empirical measurement of the achievements of the building. Utilisation study in the form of Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE), site visits and checking the design against the programme of requirements, norms and results from evaluative study done elsewhere are the most important sources.


Ex ante research

It is crucial to be able to make already during the development stage of the plan a guess into the effects of the programmatic choices and design decisions. Prophesying these effects before the object is realised (ex ante) is not simple. Hulsbergen and Van der Schaaf show that systematic analysis of effects in the form of evaluative study ex post may serve well. Such an evaluation necessitates formulation of a perspective within which the effects will manifest themselves; in political, cultural, economical, technical, ecological and spatial terms. Results from evaluating research ex post are an important source for so-called ‘pre-design research’. An excellent means to discover critical uncertainties is the study of scenarios wherein alternative views of the future are thought through with regard to spatial impact and their relationships to possibilities, desirability, and likelihood.


Ex ante performance evaluation of housing

Thomsen discusses an instrument to evaluate the quality of housing. This so-called cost-quality test is an important tool for evaluation of plans; both ex ante and ex post. Thus, not only the most important qualities in terms of usage are unveiled; also criteria for evaluation and assessment of the planned or realised achievement of housing and individual dwellings are highlighted. By relating quality to costs a motivated estimate can be of the optimal ratio between both.


Evaluating prototypes

Some of the advantages of ex post evaluation could be realised ex ante by making a prototype. Van der Voordt describes some criteria for that kind of research, illustrated by a study by design of prototypes of correctional facilities and health care facilities.


Comparing and evaluating drawings

In the final contribution De Jong shows how drawings can be used as a means to evaluate designs ex post and ex ante. He emphasises the importance of a clear legend and a transformation of different drawings to the same scale in order to be able to compare designs in different contexts.



The different contributions show that a long tradition exists in evaluating of designs ex post and ex ante. However, most evaluations of functional aspects are prepared and executed by researchers with a background in social sciences, whereas designers or architectural critics do most evaluations of formal aspects. Integrative evaluations including functional, formal, technical and economical effects might lead to a better mutual understanding of different parties involved in the design and building process and lead to a growing body of knowledge of architectural, urban and technical design.






22     Modelling reality                                                                Ina Klaasen                                                                                   181

23     Verbal Models                                                                     Taeke de Jong                                                                               189

24     Mathematical Models                                                        Taeke de Jong, Rein de Graaf                                                     203

25     Visualisation and architecture                                          Alexander Koutamanis                                                                231

26     The empirical cycle                                                             Hugo Priemus                                                                               249

27     Forecasting and Problem Spotting                                  Taeke de Jong, Hugo Priemus                                                    253


In empirical science existing reality is modelled. Central in this section stands the making of consistent verbal, mathematical and visual models and their relation to reality.


Modelling reality

There are many types of models, as Klaasen will explain in the first Chapter of this section. It is highly significant, that several types of models are in existence, but not several models of types.


Verbal models

The best described, most widely accepted form of consistency is formal logic. This also is on a higher level of abstraction a model (meta-language) of common language. Verbal models of architectural objects carry on their own level as an object-language the properties of this model. In the corresponding section de Jong adresses proposition and predicate logic, and their linguistic restrictions.


Mathematical models

De Jong elaborates different mathematical tools to be used in architectural, urban and technical design and evaluation. In the mathematical model of a design, connections may be read that enable evaluation of constructive or functional connectedness.


Visualisation and architecture

The language of the drawing is, due to its endless variation, less consistent than conversational language with her verifiable syntax, grammar and inherent logic. Con­siderable sensitivity as to con­text and interpretation of the drawing implies both her logical weakness and heuristic prowess at the same time. Yet, consistent and verifiable visual models can be made. Koutamanis gives examples.


The empirical cycle

On a higher level of abstraction the empirical cycle is also a model; according to many – including the author of that Chapter, Priemus – the only consistent model for scientific practice. It can be copied in any research project. That model is broadly accepted. It is based on the growth of knowledge to be generalised by well-defined testing. The time consuming shaping of a hypothesis, like with the architectural design, is in this respect ‘free’, not further modelled. The usual scientific approach pre-supposes in its turn consistency in discourse.


Forecasting and problem spotting

Mathematical models play an important rôle in forecasts and consequently in problem spotting that may give rise, for example, to the formulation of an architectural programme of requirements. Their conceptual framework is explained in the corresponding Chapter of de Jong and Priemus by way of large-scale examples.



A model demonstrates more relations than a concept or type, let alone an intuition: it is more consistent. However the model is not yet reality and should not be confused with it. Many relations – topographical, situational – will be lacking in the model. Incomplete models of a design may be made in order to make sector effect analyses and to test the design according to certain values and objectives of the relevant stakeholders (evaluations). Sometimes this requires more modelling than the design itself allows. A scale model is a model, if it allows evaluation like that; very realistically, like in a wind tunnel. A sketched-scale model rather has a function for further development of the design; also if it has not, as yet, the consistency of a model with its inter-subjective checking potential.






28     Urban Programming Research                                          Piet Guyt, Edward Hulsbergen                                                   265

29     Programming of buildings                                                 Theo van der Voordt, Herman van Wegen                              271

30     Programming Building Construction                               Mick Eekhout, Ype Cuperus                                                       279

31     Designing a City Hall                                                         Carel Weeber, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan                     287

32     Design by optimisation                                                     Peter Paul van Loon                                                                     293

33     Optimising performance requirements                            Piet Houben                                                                                  305

34     The environmental maximisation method                       Kees Duijvestein                                                                          313



Making a programme of requirements for a building or urban plan pre-supposes a model of the future. With the help of models discussed in the previous section, discrepancies may be signalled between the present situation and the most likely situation in the future and the most desirable one. Starting from a future model like that, urban, architectural and constructive pro­grammes of requirements may be drawn up in order to deal with problems signalled or predicted. The programme directs the design, even if it determines the spatial model in a limited way. A programme represents a need from the context of the object on a certain scale level (e. g. national, provincial, local) and of a certain nature (e. g. cultural, economical, technical). Positioning the need in a contextual scheme is an important part of programming design.


Figure 1 Context



Urban programming research and programming of buildings

In the contributions of Guyt and Hulsbergen (urban level) and Van der Voordt and Van Wegen (building level) the method of programming study is worked out further; not only for re-programming existing situations, but also for programming new architectural objects. Both approaches show a careful inventory of wishes, needs and activities to house. Study among present and future users, functional analyses, norms and characteristic values, lessons learned from evaluative study and statistical prognoses are important sources for formulating a programme of requirements. The use of scenario methods is a good tool to picture the spatial consequences of different possible futures.


Programming building construction

Eekhout and Cuperus discuss programming on lower levels of scale (<100 m. radius), but in the same time in a wide range (until 1 mm.) and within a more strict technical context of performance requirements.


Designing a city hall

The Chapter by Weeber, van Eldijk and van Kan is an example of a design process where the programme of requirements functioned explicitly as guidance for the design.


Design by optimisation

In a programme of requirements wishes and requirements related to an architectural object are often contradictory. In that case choices and priorities must be made. Decision theory has made a lot of progress in weighing conflicting requirements transparently and democratically. Van Loon shows what mathematical optimisation models can contribute. His contribution is focused on use of linear programming.


Optimising performance requirements

Houben describes a more verbal approach. In his view not only factual arguments matter, but – as least as important – also the way in which actors in the process communicate. An important distinction is the one between norms, laws and results from scientific study on one hand, and collective and individual preferences on the other. Rational and emotional arguments often conflict. Consensus under an umbrella concept and a phased development of the plan are important ingredients for taking decisions acceptable to all parties.


The environmental maximisation method

The contribution of Duijvestein argues not for optimisation, but for maximisation of dominant values, in this case: a safe, healthy and sustainable environment. With maximisation of an interest like that the importance of weighing interests of separate parties shows again.






35     Redesign and renovation of buildings                            Leo Verhoef                                                                                   323

36     Approaches to the Study of Building Services and Installations                                                                 Bob Schalkoort         327

37     Methodical design of load-bearing

         constructions in buildings                                                Wim Kamerling                                                                             339

38     Classification and combination                                        Ype Cuperus                                                                                 345

39     Methodology and component development                 Mick Eekhout                                                                                355

40     Industrial design methods                                                Alex Jager                                                                                      367

41     Future ICT developments                                                 Sevil Sariyildiz, Rudi Stouffs, Özer Çiftçioğlu,



Construction technique serves spatial design. It is also a subject of education, study and development. Designing includes construction-technical design; linked with all other subjects of this book.


Re-design and renovation

Presently the largest part of the built environment already exists; as soon as it is completed, a new building is added to the stock. An important dimension of the challenge of building for the future includes renovation, maintenance, re-adjustment and improvement of existing buildings (Verhoef, page ).


Study of building services and installations

Schalkoort discusses the study of technical facilities in buildings most close to man: climate control, installations for transport, electricity, sanitary, communications, cleaning and risk prevention. The more space they require, the earlier its concern has to be involved in the process.


Methodical design of load-bearing constructions in buildings

Kamerling discusses the study of technical facilities more remote from man, sometimes even invisible. This kind of study covers a limited range of scale levels and limited context variables. The resulting clear-cut considerations could serve as a prototype of more complex design study.


Classification and combination

In this Chapter Cuperus argues that there are several ways to order building technique, each of them with a specific objective. Architectural transformations do not occur spontaneously. They result from human decisions, ultimately linked to the way components of the building are connected. One approach may be to order building along the lines of the ‘building node’. The interface of the building node defines not only an ordering for the levels where decisions will be made, but also one with respect to sub-systems.


Methodology and component development

Components (‘constituent parts of a whole’) may be part of architectural (sub-)systems and separately developed. Eekhout argues how, in which case and context.


Industrial design methods

Designing components resembles industrial design of loose products as done on the faculty of Industrial Design. De Jager refers to this branch of design methodology and discusses similarities and dissimilarities in context and methodology of product development, industrial design and architectural design.


Future ICT developments

Sariyildiz et al. indicate that both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ computing techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and generic algorythms are helpful in complex design processes and architectural education. They discuss four application domains of ICT: creative-design, materialisation, realisation, and process and management.



Technical design is an interface between hard knowledge as discussed in the previous sections, and soft growing concepts. They are subject of the next sections.







42     Creating space of thought                                                Herman Hertzberger                                                                     389

43     Perceiving and conceiving                                                Herman Hertzberger                                                                     399

44     Formation of the image                                                      Taeke de Jong, Jürgen Rosemann                                             413

45     Experience, intuition and conception                              Adriaan Geuze, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan                   419

46     Designing an office                                                            Jan Brouwer, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan                       423

47     Designing a village                                                             Jan Heeling, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan                        429

48     Urban design methods                                                      John Westrik                                                                                 433

49     Designing in a determined context                                  Taeke de Jong                                                                               443


As an inquiry into possibilities of a given context (site and programmatic desiderata) designing does not call for methodological requirements, but rather for liberation from down-trodden problem definitions and their solutions.


Creating space of thought

Hertzberger explores the methods assisting in opening up the possiblities, instead of determining them. Descartes’ ‘Discours de la Méthode’ focused on doubt. Design study distrusts, like classical sciences, all that is obvious, but does not throw everything overboard all at once. Experience evaporated into routine deserves suspicion of the scientific approach, deeming no pre-supposition sacred. However a culture, certainly a local one, surrounds us with pre-suppositions unbeknown to us; like a fish without knowledge of the water it is taken from, at the same time there is certitude of existing conditions: a table, a bed, a kitchen entails great forms of freedom.


Perceiving and conceiving

Because of this Hertzberger then appreciates greatly collecting architectural examples, references. However, awareness of these references requires a technique of reduction if they are to be used in a different context from the old one, and not at their beck and call.


Formation of the image

De Jong and Rosemann survey notions on the formation of images from scholarship, science, philosophy and the arts. Where do we cross the threshold from pure experience into making? Starting point is development psychology but the end is design.


Experience, intuition and conception

Geuze, Van Eldijk and Van Kan show the design process of a gifted student from analysis of the location until the final design with all its pitfalls and dead ends.


Designing an office

Brouwer, Van Eldijk and Van Kan then show a design process of an experienced architect directly starting with a concept, the influence of context, metaphores and fixing sizes


Designing a village

At last, Heeling, Van Eldijk and Van Kan describe the more formal design process of an experienced urban designer with a more global frame and grain.


Urban design methods

Enlarging frame and grain limits applicable methods, but, Westrik discusses so many methods in this field, that we can conclude that there are more methods than designers.


Designing in a determined context

Finally de Jong allocates them within the communicative maze of the building team.



There are more design methods than designers. Nevertheless, we recognise something in every design process. Though we can not name or systemise all phases, we can learn from it.







50     Types of Study by Design                                                Theo van der Voordt, Taeke de Jong                                        455

51     Designing Naturalis in a changing context                    Fons Verheijen, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan                  459

52     Designing a building for art and culture                         Wiek Röling, Job van Eldijk, Lenneke van Kan                       465

53     Contemplations for copenhagen                                      Wim van den Bergh                                                                     473

54     Learning from The Bridge project                                    Jack Breen                                                                                     483

55     Creating non-orthogonal architecture                             Karel Vollers                                                                                  487

56     Design in strategy                                                              Dirk Frieling                                                                                   491


Design research as discussed in Chapter 10 concerns determined designed objects within determined historical contexts. Design study in the preceding section considers the actual context, the location and the commission for the time being determined as well, but the object is variable because it has to be designed.








Design research

Design study


Typological research

Study by design


But, as we all know, context is always differing, changing and could even be object of design as well on a higher level of scale. Research on different locations and historical periods produces types (Typological research as discussed in Chapter 12) as long as we find object constancies. Sometimes we do not. Considerable experience has been gained in forms of study where the object or context is fixed by typological research or design study. If both context and object are variable (study by design), an alteration of typological research and design study can be resorted to. In this the object and the context are alternately varied. However, it is not inconceivable that this research can hold its own unaided by these two research methods.


Types of study by design

Van der Voordt and De Jong try to find some classifications of study by design. They do not choose but give some examples to find a scientific direction at last.


Designing Naturalis in a changing context

When the location changes during the design process, as happened designing Naturalis by Verheijen (see page ), the type of building and even the programme of requirements may change as well.


Figure 2 Changing the location of Naturalis from downtown Leiden into the edge of the old city


How do we study a variable object in a variable managerial, cultural, economical, technical, ecological and mass-space-time context? That means also, that goals out of that context are shifting. The study becomes more means-orientated and less determined by assumed goals.


Designing a building for art and  culture

Röling, Van Eldijk and Van Kan describe the design process of an experienced and socially involved architect with great sensitivity for changing contexts


Contemplations for Copenhagen

Van den Bergh describes the development of a design without a programme of requirements. That brings him back to the very roots of the discipline of design, the ancient sources of our culture.


Learning from The Bridge project



Creating non-orthogonal architecture and design in strategy

Vollers’ and Frieling’s study are the first indications of systematic study by design. Vollers proceeds from the desing resources opened up by the use of CAD to give form to potential objects and applicable contexts. Frieling’s basic premise is a dynamic public deliberation between projects on a small scale (objects), and perspectives on a large scale (contexts) in connection with the decision-making on the Delta Metropolis.



Graduation projects, in which the students are allowed to determine context and object themselves, present an archive of more and less successful experiments in the field of study by design. However, this archive is not yet sufficiently documented and updated, or accessible for scientific study (http://iaai.bk.tudelft.nl). Such an effort is necessary to find enough comparable examples for design research. Design research supports our most challenging effort, to bring study by design on a scientific level.





Theo van der Voordt and Ype Cuperus


56.1    The anatomy of the book ex-post........................ 12

56.2    Shared objectives, different approaches............ 12

56.3    Students’ ways to study and research............... 13

56.4    Continuation of the methodology debate.............. 13


0.1           The anatomy of the book ex-post

The initial objective of this book was to write a text book on research methodology for architecture, urban planning and technical design students, with a particular focus on research by design. As such it aims to offer an extensive follow-up of earlier discussions of the so-called Methodology Board of the Delft Faculty of Architecture on types and methods of design related research. One member proposed that design driven research applying to be labelled as science should meet the methodological principles of A.D. de Groot’s Methodology: foundations of inference and research in the behavioural sciences (1969). Other members disagreed and suggested that there are hundreds of ‘scientific’ research methods. After long discussions the committee published a short report on eight types of design related research, leaving out of consideration its methodological approach. From time to time new debates flared up on whether and when designing and research by design may be labelled as scientific work and a design as the output of scientific research. The present book has been initiated to reflect on these questions and to discuss methods and criteria for ‘scientific’ design and design related research. Over time a number of new objectives were added. One of these was a comprehensive overview of design related research and study at the Faculty of Architecture in Delft. Another wish of many in the Faculty was to raise the academic status of design, developing a basis for equivalence between certain design outputs and other, more traditionally recognised scientific activities. Yet another objective, though not universally supported, was to develop a more rational basis for design. Multiple objectives often lead to a hybrid. Some people may find this book is a hybrid. But, it is much more! As far as we know it is unique in presenting such a rich blend of many different perspectives, methods, and ideologies. In essence, this is really a book on methodology in the sense that it explores a range of methods!


0.2           Shared objectives, different approaches

This book shows that a considerable part of study and research at the Faculty of Architecture at Delft is centred on the description and analysis of plans. Such analyses and the comparison of designs with reference to concept, intent, function, form, structure and technique are the focus of the research programme in architectural and urban design. Objectivity, inter-subjectivity and interpretations subject to personal preferences, are weighed differently per project. Pre-design research and the evaluation of existing buildings also represent an important field of study, as does the study of the way in which design solutions are generated. Exploring new construction techniques, product-development, IT and other tools to support and optimise briefing and design and complex multi-actor decision processes in the field of real estate and housing are included as well. Some of the questions being examined are:

How does a designer generate a concept?

What is the rôle of typology, model development, hypotheses and forecasts in this process?

Is evaluation 'ex ante' able to provide timely indications of strengths and weaknesses in a design?

How can empirical research ‘ex post’ contribute to the improvement of briefing documents and optimising of design?

What are the (dis)similarities between design research, typological research, design study and study by design with reference to objectives, methodology, object and context, applicability in design processes and scientific character?


As this book has shown, many faculty members are searching for a better appreciation of design tools and of the effects of design decisions, as well as for the optimisation of the briefing process and of design itself. However, some clear differences in approach and strategy were identified.


Empirical research usually starts with a conscientious identification of the problem and objective. It is strongly focused on a careful description of reality, the exploration of theories and the testing of hypotheses. It also tends to develop practical recommendations for designers, planners and policy makers based on the pillars of reliability, validity, desirability and probability. All this is centred around general knowledge and the further development of a body of ‘true’ knowledge.


Design research - often in the form of (comparative) plan-analysis - is usually strongly descriptive and exploratory and less prescriptively. It is generally directed towards interpreting, understanding and explaining designs and the design tools used, both in itself and with reference to site characteristics and the social, cultural, historical, technical, ecological and economical context. It may be instrumental in evoking inspiration and ideas for a particular design.


Typological research is a particular form of design research, whereas it looks back and tries to explore a typology of design solutions, traced from precedents. But, it can also be a particular form of design study or study by design, whereas the focus is on designing new, yet non-existing types. The focus may vary from description to exploration and testing, from empirical and descriptive to normative and prescriptive. 


Design study is an integrated part of the design process itself, whether the design is actually constructed or not. In the field of design methodology many authors discussed the well-known cycle of analysis, synthesis, (simulation) and evaluation. This cycle may be applied to the design task as a whole or to a decomposition into sub-problems. Although the focus is mainly on a particular, context-related design solutions, design studies may explore new possibilities with generic applicability, new knowledge and a better understanding of probabilities and desirabilities.


Study by Design – elsewhere called Inquiry by Design or Research by Design - tries to generate knowledge and new insights by studying transformations of a design or design interventions in an existing situation. Generally, this type of study also features a strong exploratory characteristic. The first step is to generate new design variations using design itself as the process for the study. Hence the term 'means oriented study' is used in contrast to the more common goal-oriented approach. Then the implications of these variations are studied, whether or not leading to adaptations or completely different solutions. As such new concepts may be developed as well as a better understanding of the impact of different design decisions.


Design may differ sharply from study and research with reference to its product aimed at (a plan or building-  versus research based scientific knowledge), its focus (searching for new possibilities - versus searching for desirabilities and probabilities) and its character (normative, based on personal preferences, views and ideology, versus empirical, based on facts). However, in practice the difference is often one of degree rather than kind. Particularly in design study and study by design, studying and designing are alternate processes. Both are employed interactively and iteratively, in order to arrive at a solution of high quality. In different phases and to varying degrees, what is possible, what is desirable and what is probable receives thus more or less attention. In the first instance, in moving to an improved design, contextual knowledge is more important than general knowledge. But, the opposite may be true as well. Starting a design process may evoke new problem statements and research questions, merging study and design to a strongly integrated process.


0.3           Students’ ways to study and research

The task of academics is to research and teach. The Faculty of Architecture at Delft has always been a Design School, focusing on design driven education. While the proportion of non-design disciplines, such as real-estate and project management, asset management and the social sciences has increased in the curriculum, a considerable amount of knowledge is still taught in design studios within the master-pupil tradition. In this process, the teacher inspires the student through the demonstration and discussion of design. While the moments shared in this traditional teaching approach are too valuable to loose, it has become clear that there is a great deal to be said about design and the process of designing. This book aims to stimulate such an approach. In retrospect it presents a wide variety of opinions, design strategies and research methods. From strongly contrasting positions it demonstrates how research, study and design may be linked to one another. In this way, the book should become a valuable tool for the teaching of architectural, urban and technical design. Not only to teach students how to include research data and analysis in their design process, but also to guide them to contribute more consciously and effectively through their design projects to the research objectives of the Faculty. By using the book at different stages of their development and working through it with different faculty members, students may reach deeper levels of understanding. By being presented with the juxtaposition of contrasting points of view, students may experience a positive, creative tension, which facilitates learning. However, although the book shows a lot about how faculty members are doing research, in a strict sense it is not a text book on research methodology. For a clear understanding and developing of skills in designing research, different types of research (review of literature, survey, case study, experiment, content analysis of documents and plans, secondary analysis of existing data and so on), research methods and techniques such as interviewing and observation techniques, methods of data-collection and (statistical) data-analysis, this book should be used in combination with more traditional textbooks on research methodology.  To ensure that this book becomes an effective textbook in itself and to achieve the same high standards as leading books on research methodology and techniques, it is proposed to hone this book on the basis of feedback from our students.


0.4           Continuation of the methodology debate

The contrasts and complementarities in terms of strategy and methodology presented in this volume will provide a sound basis for further scientific debate in the area. Cross-references will help the reader in finding different opinions on the same subject. Being informed about the goals and techniques of peers will hopefully contribute significantly to the development of understanding and criticism, the deepening of knowledge and the raise of more inter-disciplinary compositions of research teams. For these reasons, it is intended to use the book as the basis of thematic discussion-meetings and study-seminars within the Faculty of Architecture in Delft. But, of course,  ‘Delft’ also wants to contribute to the international debate and to receive feedback from the international peer group. Although this book originates from our inner circle, we are strongly aware of the leading discussions in many other architectural schools, both in Europe and in the United States. There, too, is a request for a stronger clarification of the issue of architectural and design research as a condition to maintain the status as academic institution. See for instance the book Dunin-Woyseth, H. and J. Michl (2001) Towards a disciplinary identity of the making professions. of the Oslo School of Architecture. Whereas we hope that Ways to Research and Study has shown that design as a field of inquiry has matured to an autonomous discipline, international exchange of ideas and methods will undoubtedly deepen our common knowledge and explore new insights. Furthermore, we are very open to inspiring debates with scholars from other fields of knowledge. So spontaneous reactions on the book are most welcome!







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